What Are Cilia And Flagella How Do These Structures Acquire Movement What Are Some Examples Of Ciliated And Flagellated Cells In Humans
Cilia and flagella are structures found in some prokaryotes as well in some eukaryotic cells. They play defense, nutrition and movement roles for the cell. In eukaryotic cells of protists and animals they originate from centrioles that migrate towards the plasma membrane and differentiate into structures projected outside the cell. Each cilium or flagellum is made of nine peripheral pairs of microtubules and one central pair all covered by membrane. (In bacteria, flagella are made of a protein named flagellin and there can also be fimbria made of pilin.)In the fixation base of each cilium or flagellum in the plasma membrane there are proteins that work as molecular motors providing movement for these structures with energy spending. Due to this energy spending ciliated or flagellated eukaryotic cells have a large number of mitochondria.In humans ciliated cells can be found, for example, in the bronchial and tracheal epithelium. In these tissues the cilia have the defensive function of sweeping mucous and foreign substances that enter the airways. Sperm cells are typical example of flagellated cells their flagellum is the propulsion equipment for the movement towards the ovule.Cytoskeleton and Cell Movement - Image Diversity: ciliated cell flagellate cell
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