What Are Basic Functions Of Network Programming Interface
Most operating systems provide precompiled programs that communicate across a network. Common examples into the TCP/IP world are web clients(browsers) and web servers, and the FTP and TELNET clients and servers.A socket is an endpoint used by a process for bi-directional communication with a socket associated with another process. Sockets, introduced in Berkeley Unix, are a basic mechanism for IPC on a computer system, or on different computer systems connected by local or wide area networks(resource 2). To understand some structs into this subject is necessary a deeper knowledge about the operating system and his networking protocols. This subject can be used as either beginners programmers or as a reference for experienced programmers.The Socket FunctionMost network applications can be divided into two pieces: a client and a server.Creating a socket#include <sys/types.h>#include <sys/socket.h>When you create a socket there are three main parameters that you have to specify:* the domain* the type* the protocolint socket(int domain, int type, int protocol);The Domain parameter specifies a communications domain within which communication will take place, in the example the domain parameter was AF_INET, that specify the ARPA Internet Protocols The Type parameter specifies the semantics of communication, in the mini chat used the Stream socket type(SOCK_STREAM), because it offers a bi-directional, reliable, two-way connection based byte stream(resource 2). Finally the protocol type, since used a Stream Socket type, must use a protocol that provide a connection-oriented protocol, like IP, decide to use IP in our protocol Type, and we saw in /etc/protocols the number of ip, 0. So the function now is:s = socket(AF_INET , SOCK_STREAM , 0)where 's' is the file descriptor returned by the socket function.Since the mini chat is divided in two parts it will be divided the explanation in the server, the client and the both, showing the basic differences between them, as see next.The Mini-chat Server structureBinding a socket to a port and waiting for the connectionsLike all services in a Network TCP/IP based, the sockets are always associated with a port, like Telnet is associated to Port 23, FTP to 21... In the Server, to do the same thing, bind some port to be prepared to listening for connections ( that is the basic difference between Client and Server), Listing 2. Bind is used to specify for a socket the protocol port number where it will be waiting for messages.So there is a question, which port could be new service? Since the system pre-defined a lot of ports between 1 and 7000 ( /etc/services ) choose the port number 15000.The function of bind is:int bind(int s, struct sockaddr *addr, int addrlen)The struct necessary to make socket works is the struct sockaddr_in address; and the follow lines to say to system the information about the socket.The type of socketaddress.sin_family = AF_INET /* use a internet domain */The IP usedaddress.sin_addr.s_addr = INADDR_ANY /*use a specific IP of host*/The port usedaddress.sin_port = htons(15000); /* use a specific port number */And finally bind our port to the socketbind(create_socket , (struct sockaddr *)&address,sizeof(address));Now another important phase, prepare a socket to accept messages from clients, the listen function is used on the server in the case of connection oriented communication and also the maximum number of pending connections(resource 3).listen (create_socket, MAXNUMBER)where MAXNUMER in the case is 3. And to finish, tell the server to accept a connection, using the accept() function. Accept is used with connection based sockets such as streams.accept(create_socket,(struct sockaddr *)&address,&addrlen);As see in Listing 2 The parameters are the socket descriptor of the master socket (create_socket), followed by a sockeaddr_in structure and the size of the structure.(resource 3)The Mini-chat Client structureMaybe the biggest difference is that client needs a Connect() function. The connect operation is used on the client side to identify and, possibly, start the connection to the server. The connect syntax isconnect(create_socket,(struct sockaddr *)&address,sizeof(address)) ;The common structureA common structure between Client and the Server is the use of the struct hostent as seeing in Listing 1 and 2. The use of the Send and Recv functions are another common codes.The Send() function is used to send the buffer to the serversend(new_socket,buffer,bufsize,0);and the Recv() function is used to receive the buffer from the server, look that it is used both in server and client.recv(new_socket,buffer,bufsize,0);Since the software of the TCP/IP protocol is inside the operating system, the exactly interface between an application and the TCP/IP protocols depends of the details of the operating system(resource 4). In the case, examine the UNIX BSD socket interface because Linux follow this. The Mini-chat developed here is nothing more than a explain model of a client/server application using sockets in Linux and should be used like a introduction of how easy is to develop applications using sockets. After understand this you can easily start to think about IPC (interprocess Communication), fork, threads(resource 5) and much more. The basic steps to make it work is:1. Run the server2. Run the client with the address of the serverBy Pedro Paulo Ferreira Bueno and Antonio Pires de Castro Junior
2009-2016 downloadmela.com. All rights reserved.