Innovations and scientific breakthroughs have shaped humanity's historic landscape. Many of these breakthroughs have made possible our continued survival. We've seen innovations as a response to certain needs and to changes in the environment. Modern quests have led to innovations that put men on the moon in the days of the Apollo program. Today, the challenge is to find solutions in a race against climate change. Our dependence on fossil fuels has released more carbon dioxide than ever, trapping the sun's heat, which can have dire consequences on seasonal precipitation levels affecting our agriculture and economies. However, clean energy alternatives have the potential to reduce the amount of carbon that we're putting into the atmosphere. Joining us on this edition is Doug Ray, associate director of the U.S. Dept. of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. He is a recognized authority on the scientific and technical challenges required to decarbonize the global energy system and the environmental consequences of energy production use on a global scale. He is interviewed by CU Science Update correspondent Beth Bartel. Hosted by Ron Knabenbauer.