CTS  Placement Paper   Aptitude - English   Bangalore-2 Nov 2010

CTS  Placement Paper   Aptitude - English   Bangalore-2 Nov 2010


  • Posted by  FreshersWorld 
    7 Jan, 2012

    Below are the few important grammatical rules which may be required to review to solve English aptitude paper in any MNCs
     
    1. Possessive case

    Possessive case is generally used with living things e.g. the governor?s bodyguard.

    But is also used with personified objects:

    e.g.  India?s heroes, nature?s law etc.

    2.  Comparison of adjectives:

    1)   Adjectives ending in ?or are followed by the preposition to(not than); as,
    Inferior, superior, prior, anterior, posterior, senior, junior.

    e.g.

    Hari is inferior to rama in intelligence
    He is junior to all of his colleagues.

    2) In comparing two things or classes of things the comparative should be used; as, Of Mumbai and Madras the former is wealthier.

    Of two evils, choose the less (not least).

    Note:  later and latest refer to time, latter and last refer to position. Elder and eldest are used only of person, not of animals or thing. Older and oldest are used of both persons and things.

    3. Personal pronouns

    There is a general construction
    e.g.
    You and I have done our duty.
    You and hari have idled away your time.
    He and I can never pull on together.

    i.e the construction is- ?you and I? not ?I and you? ,?you and he? not ?he and you?  ,?he and I? not ?I and he?    

    mind it.

    4. Mood

    Subjunctive mood:

    a. past subjunctive is used

    1) After the verb wish to indicate a situation which is unreal or contrary to fact: as,

    I wish I knew his name.    (= I?m sorry I don?t know his name.)
    She wishes the car belonged to you.

    2) After if, to express improbability or unreality in the present: as;

    If I were you I should not do that (but I am not you, and never can be)
    If we started now we would be in time (but we can?t start now)

    3) After as if/though, to indicate unreality or improbability: as,

    He orders me as if I were his wife (but I am not).
    He walks as though he were drunk (but he is not).

    5. Tense

    This is a very vital part in grammar & also for apti.

    6. Agreement of the verb with the subject

    1) If the singular subjects are preceded by each and every the verb usually singular:as?

    Every boy and girl was ready.
    Every man, woman and child was lost.

    2) Two or more singular subjects connected by or, nor, either?.or, neither...Nor take a verb in the singular: as,

    Either abdul or amir has stolen the watch.
    Neither rama nor his sister was there.

    3) When subjects joined by or,nor are of different numbers, the verb must be plural, and the plural subject must be placed next the verb ;as,

    Rama and his brothers have done this.

    4) When the subjects joined by  or or nor are of different persons,the verb agrees with the nearer ; as,

    Either he or I am mistaken.
    Neither you nor he is mistaken.

    5) Either, neither, each, everyone, many a, must be followed by a singular verb; as,

    Each of the substances is found in India.
    Many a man has done so.

    6) Words joined to a singular subject by ?with?, ?together with?, ?in addition to?, or ?as well as?, etc.,are parenthetical, and therefore do not affect the number of the verb ; as,

    The chief, with all his men, was massacred.
    Rama, as well as hari and govind, likes hot curry.

    7. The participle

    Hearing the noise, the boy woke up. The word hearing qualifies the noun boy as an adjective does.
    It is formed from the verb hear, and governs an object. Participle is called a verbal adjective.

    a. Present participle

    We met a girl carrying a basket of flowers.

    b. Past participle

    Driven by hunger, he stole a piece of bread.

    c. Perfect participle

    Having rested, we continued our journey.
    The wind having failed, the crew set to work with a will.

    1) Since the participle is a verb-adjective it must be attached to some noun or pronoun ; in other words it must always have a proper ?subject of reference?.

    The following sentences are incorrect:

    Being a very hot day, I remained at my tent.
    Entering the room, the light was quite dazzling.
     
    The correct sentences are:
     
    It being a very hot day, I remained at my tent.
    Entering the room, I found the light quite dazzling.
     
    More examples:
     
    Sword being in hand, he rushed on the jailor.
    Breakfast having been over, we went out for a walk.

    8. The gerund

    Gerund is verb-noun
     
    Few examples;
     
    I heard of his having gained a prize.
    He is desirous of being praised.
    I hope you will excuse my (not me) leaving early.
    We rejoiced at his (not him) being promoted.

    9. Auxiliaries

    This is another important chapter in grammar.

    A sentence construction:
     
    You should have been more careful. (Should + perfect infinitive indicates a past obligation that was not fulfilled).
    He should be in the library now. (Expresses probability).
     
    Note: Follow the auxiliaries (will/would, can/could, may/might etc .

    10. Position of adverbs

    As a general rule, the word only should be placed immediately before the word it modifies; as,
    I worked only 2 sums.

    11. Preposition

    1) Since is used before a noun or phrase denoting some point of time, and is preceded by a verb in the perfect tenses ;as,

    I have eaten nothing since yesterday.
    Ha has been ill since Monday last.

    2) From is used with non-perfect tenses; as,

    He will join school from tomorrow.
    I commenced work from 1st January.

    3) For is used with a period of time; as,

    He has been ill for 5 days.

    4) In before a noun denoting a period of time, means at the end of; within means before the end of; as,

    I shall return in an hour.
    I shall return within an hour.

    5) Beside means by the side of, while besides means in addition to.

    6) The prepositions for, from, in, on are often omitted before nouns of place or time; as,

    We did it last week, I can?t walk a yard, wait a minute.

    7) In and at are used in speaking of things at rest; to and into are used in speaking of things in motion; as,

    He is in bed.
    He ran to school.             ,He jumped into the river.

    8) On is used in speaking of things at rest, and upon the things in motion; as,

    He sat on a chair.                     , The cat sprang upon the table.

    9) Till is used of time, and to is used of place; as,

    I slept till eight o?clock.            , He walked to the end of the street.

    10) With often denotes the instrument and by the agent; as,

    He killed two birds with one shot.
    He was stabbed by a lunatic with a dagger.

    11) But- as a rule is a conjunction. When used as a preposition but means ?except?, ?with the exception of?; as,

    What can he do but die.
    All is lost but honor.

    Note: also take a look at the prepositions that shows some most common relation to some words; as,

    1) Place:

    Went about the world, leaned against a wall, tour round the world, put pen to paper, stand without the gate.

    (2) Time: by three o?clock, ten minutes to twelve, on Monday.

    (3) Agency, instrumentality:

    Sent the parcel by post, was destroyed by fire, heard this through a friend, cut it with a knife.

    (4) Manner: fought with courage, won with ease.

    (5) Cause, reason, purpose:

    Died of fever, died from fatigue, concealed it through shame, took medicine for cold.

    6) Possession:

    The mosque of Omar, the boy with red hair

    7) Contrast, concession:

    For (in spite of) all his wealth he is not content, with (in spite of) all his faults I admire him. 

    12. Conjunctions and their uses

    1) Since, when used as a conjunction, should be preceded by a verb in the present perfect tense, and followed by a verb in the past indefinite tense; as,

    I have been in such a pickle since I saw you last.

    2) That is now used

    a. To express reason, cause and is equivalent to because, for that, in that; as,

    He was annoyed that he was contradicted.

    b. To express purpose and is equivalent to in order that; as,

    We sow that we may reap.

    C. To express consequences, result, effect; as,

    I?m so tired that I can?t go on.

    3) Scarcely should be followed by when, and not by than.

    Scarcely had he gone, when (not than) a policeman knocked at the door.

    4) No sooner is followed by then, and not by but.

    No sooner had he returned than (not but) he was off again.
    No sooner did he see us than he dispersed.

    13. Noun and pronoun

    1) The object of verb or of a preposition, when it is a pronoun, should be in the objective form; as,
    Between you and me (not I) affairs look dark.

    Let you and me (not I) do it.

    There is really no difference between you and me.
    Please let jack and me go to the theatre.

    14. Adjectives

    1) A very common form of error is exemplified in the following sentence:

    The population of London is greater than any town in India. (Incorrect)
    The population of London is greater than that of any town in India. (Correct)
    Because, the comparison is between the population of London and the population of any town in India

    15. Articles

    1) Before a word beginning with a consonant sound a is used; as,

    A university, a European, a ewe, a one-rupee note, a one-eyed man. The words university, European etc. Begin with a consonant sound, that of you.
    One begins with the consonant sound of w.
     
    2) Before words beginning with h and not accented on the first syllable, an is used; as,
    An historical novel, an hotel.

    3) The red and white rose. (Means one rose)

    The red and the white rose.  (Means two roses, the one red and the other white)
    The first and the second chapter=the first and second chapters.

    16. Structures

    1) subject+verb+noun/pronoun+adjective:

    The boy pushed the door open.
    We found the trunk empty.
    He turned the lamp low.

    2) Subject+verb+noun/pronoun+present participle:

    I saw him crossing the bridge.
    She caught him opening yours letter.

    3) Subject+verb+noun/pronoun+plain infinitive:

    I saw him go out.
    She watched him steal the watch.
    Let me go.

    4) Subject+verb+noun/pronoun+past participle:

    I heard my name called.
    I want the letter typed.
    We found the house deserted.

    5) Subject+verb+noun/pronoun+ (to be +) complement:

    I consider the plan (to be) unwise.
    We thought him (to be) foolish.
    The club chose Mr. Sunder treasurer.
    She called him a fool.

    6) It+be+no good.e etc. +gerundial phrase:

    It is no good asking him for help.
    It?s no use worrying about it.
    It is amusing watching the monkeys.
    It has been a pleasure meeting you.

    7)      If clause                                                                                             main clause

         (Simple present)                                                                     (Will/shall/can/may+plain infinitive)

                                         

    If you study hard                                                                                      you will get a first class.

    If he runs all the time                                                                             he can get there in time.

    Note: Conditionals of this type tell us that something will happen if a certain condition is fulfilled. The condition may or may not be fulfilled.

    (8)           If clause                                                                                   main clause

             (Past subjunctive)                                                  (Would/should/could/might+plain infinitive)

    If you studied hard                                                                                 you would get a first class.

    If we started now                                                                                     we would be in time.

    Note: Conditionals of this type are used when we talk about something which we don?t expect to happen or which is purely imaginary.

    (9)           If clause                                                                                         main clause

                  (Past perfect)                                                         (Would/should/could/might+perfect infinitive)

    If you studied hard                                                                            you would have got a first class.

    If he had taken my advice                                                           he would not have got into trouble.

    Note: Conditionals of this type say that something did not happen becoz a certain condition was not fulfilled.

    17. The sequence of tenses:

    1) A past tense in the principle clause is followed by a past tense in the subordinate clause;as,

    She replied that she felt better.

    I found out that he was guilty.

    Note: there are however two exceptions to the above rule:

    a)   A past tense in the principle clause may be followed by a present tense in the subordinate clause when the subordinate clause expresses a universal truth ;as,
     
    Newton discovered that the force of gravitation makes apples fall.
    He said that honesty is the best policy.

    (b)  When the subordinate clause is introduced by than, even if there is a past tense in the principle clause it may be followed by any tense required by the sense in the subordinate clause ;as,

    He liked you better than he likes me.
    He helped him more than he helps his own children.

    2) A present or future tense in the principle clause may be followed by any tense required by the sense; as,

    He thinks that she is there.
    He thinks that she was there.
     
    He thinks that she will be there.
    He will think that she is/was/will be there.

    18. Few sentence construction:

    1)  (a) He thought that he was safe there.

         (b) He thought himself to be safe there.

    2)   (a) I believed that he was a true friend.

          (b) I believed him to be a true friend.

    3)   (a) This proved that the man had stolen the horse.

          (b) This proved the man t have stolen the horse.

    (4)  (a)  We know that Rama is alive.

          (b) We know Rama to be alive.

    19. In such sentences as the following, but is equivalent to a relative pronoun followed by not, and serves to introduce an adjective clause:-

    (1) There was not a woman present but wept to hear such news. [That is, who did not weep to hear such news.](2) There is no fireside but has one vacant chair. [That has not one vacant chair.]

    So, this was a brief review of few important grammatical rules. Follow a good English grammar book to learn about English grammar more effectively, efficiently.

    Best Wishes.

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